To investigate the changes in retinal and choroidal microcirculation of celiac disease (CD) patients by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).
Patients newly diagnosed with CD and referred for a routine ophthalmic examination for eye screening were included in the study. The data were collected retrospectively from Department of Ophthalmology and Pediatric Gastroenterology at Selcuk University Facult of Medicine Hospital, Konya, Turkey.
In this cross-sectional study, forty-four pediatric patients with newly diagnosed CD and forty-four healthy pediatric subjects were included. Vascular density (Vd) of superficial deep and choriocapillary plexus (VDs, VDd and VDcc, respectively), superficial and deep foveal avascular zones (FAZs and FAZd), central macular thickness and subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured with swept-source OCT-A in addition to a complete ophthalmological examination.
Mean age of celiac patients and healthy participants were 12.02 ± 2.9 and 13.6 ± 2.3, respectively. Central sectors of VDs and VDd were found to be significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group (p = 0.006; p = 0.001). Temporal and nasal values of VDcc were significantly lower in patients than control group (p ˂ 0.05, each of them). Central macular thickness and FAZ metrics did not differ between the groups (p ˃ 0.05). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) and choroidal thinning was more considerable in women among patients (p = 0.045).
Celiac disease can affect macular and choroidal microcirculation. The reduced choriocapillary plexus parameters and choroidal thickness can provide information in terms of disease activity or gluten free diet adherence.
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