Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a worldwide common type of refractive error. It is a non-life-threatening disorder with huge social and economic consequences due to its increasing prevalence.
Axial length (AL) is the primary determinant of non-syndromic myopia. It is a parameter representing the combination of anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth of the eye. AL can also be treated as an endophenotype of myopia and may provide extra advantages in the investigation of its genetic basis. The study of AL will not only identify the determinants of eye elongation, but also provide aetiological evidence for myopia.
The purpose of this review is to outline the current state of AL research. Epidemiological evidence, genetic determinants, the relationship with other eye components and relative animal models of AL are summarised.
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